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Hypertension in Children and Adolescents: Epidemiology and Pathogenesis


Hypertension in Children and Adolescents: Epidemiology and Pathogenesis

The Indian Journal of Pediatrics, 09/06/2012

Raj M et al. – In older children, renal parenchymal disease remains the most frequent cause of increased blood pressure. Other causes of hypertension in children are relatively rare and include systemic arteritis and certain tumours, endocrine dysfunction, and neurologic disorders.

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Prenatal Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation and Infant Morbidity


Prenatal Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation and Infant Morbidity: Randomized Controlled Trial

Pediatrics, 09/08/2011

Prenatal Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation and Infant Morbidity

Imhoff–Kunsch B et al. – Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation during pregnancy decreased the occurrence of colds in children at 1 month and influenced illness symptom duration at 1, 3, and 6 months.

  • In a double-blind randomized controlled trial conducted in Mexico, pregnant women received daily supplementation with 400 mg of DHA or placebo from 18 to 22 weeks' gestation through parturition.
  • In infants aged 1, 3, and 6 months, caregivers reported the occurrence of common illness symptoms in the preceding 15 days.
  • Data were available at 1, 3, and 6 months for 849, 834, and 834 infants, respectively.
  • The occurrence of specific illness symptoms did not differ between groups; however, the occurrence of a combined measure of cold symptoms was lower in the DHA group at 1 month. At 1 month, the DHA group experienced 26%, 15%, and 30% shorter duration of cough, phlegm, and wheezing, respectively, but 22% longer duration of more
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SPECT/CT imaging in children with papillary thyroid carcinoma


Pediatric Radiology, 06/07/2011

Kim HY et al. – SPECT/CT precisely localizes neck iodine uptake. In small numbers of patients, treatment is affected. SPECT/CT should be used when available in thyroid carcinoma patients.

  • 20 SPECT/CT and planar studies were reviewed in 13 children with papillary thyroid carcinoma after total thyroidectomy.
  • Seven studies used I–123 and 13 used I–131, after elevating TSH by T4 deprivation or intramuscular thyrotropin alfa.
  • Eight children had one study and five children had two to four studies.
  • Studies were performed at initial post–total thyroidectomy evaluation, follow–up and after I–131 treatment doses.
  • SPECT/CT was performed with a diagnostic–quality CT unit in 13 studies and a localization–only CT unit in 7.
  • Stimulated thyroglobulin was measured (except in 2 cases with anti–thyroglobulin antibodies).
  • In 13 studies, neck activity was present but poorly localized on planar imaging; all foci of uptake were precisely localized by SPECT/CT. Two additional foci of neck uptake were found on SPECT/CT.
  • SPECT/CT differentiated high neck uptake from more

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Risk indicators of anxiety throughout adolescence: The TRAILS study


Depression and Anxiety, 04/25/2011

Van Oort FVA et al. - Several child, family, and peer factors measured in preadolescence were risk indicators of high levels of anxiety symptoms throughout adolescence. Some factors (such as rejective parenting) were vulnerability indicators for anxiety in early adolescence only, whereas other factors (such as peer victimization) were indicators of long-term elevated anxiety levels.

  • Anxiety symptoms were assessed in a community sample of 2,220 boys and girls at three time-points across a 5-year interval.
  • Risk indicators were measured at baseline and include indicators from the child, family, and peer domain.
  • Associations with anxiety were measured with multilevel growth curve analyses.
Results more
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Mannitol dry powder challenge in comparison with exercise testing in children


Pediatric Pulmonology, 04/15/2011

Barben J et al. - Mannitol dry powder (MDP) challenge test is feasible in children and is a suitable alternative for bronchial challenge testing in childhood.

  • Children aged 6–16 years, referred to two respiratory outpatient clinics for possible asthma diagnosis, underwent standardized exercise testing followed within a week by an MDP challenge.
  • Agreement between the two challenge tests using Cohen's kappa and receiving operating characteristic (ROC) curves was compared.
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Typhlitis in Children With Malignancy: A Single Center Experience


Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, 03/30/2011

El–Matary W et al. – In a case–control study, medical records of all children (below 18 y of age) who were diagnosed with any malignancy between January 1988 and December 2008 were reviewed. Children who developed typhlitis during the course of their malignancy were identified. Age and sex–matched more

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Teenage pregnancy


InnovAiT, 03/14/2011

Mason K et al. – The need for teenage contraceptive services is highlighted by the relatively poor sexual health of adolescents in the UK. Young people are currently disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted diseases, and although the teenage pregnancy rate is falling, it is still not at the level experienced by more


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The Prevalence of Hypertension in Children with Spina Bifida


Acta Pediatrica, 03/08/2011

Mazur L et al. – Children with spina bifida have a significantly higher prevalence of hypertension than children in the general population. Age, gender, and height based norms are important for the early identification and treatment of hypertension in children.

  • All patients (n=123) seen in the Spina Bifida Clinic at Shriners Hospital in Houston, Texas were reviewed for age, gender, ethnicity, type and level of neural tube defect, height, weight, and blood pressure.
  • Hypertension was defined as a systolic blood pressure or diastolic blood pressure >95th percentile for age, gender, and height on >3 occasions.
  • Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and from a Houston–based study were used for comparison.
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Etanercept use associated with significant increases in height, weight, BMI in children with arthritis


Formulary , 01/27/2011  Free full text  Clinical Article

Researchers from the Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center have demonstrated that the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)–alpha inhibitor etanercept is associated with significant increases in height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), according to a study more

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Life-threatening anaphylactic reaction after the administration of airway topical lidocaine


Pediatric Pulmonology, 01/19/2011

Soong WJ et al. – A 9–year–old boy who developed a life–threatening anaphylaxis reaction of the airway and subsequent dyspnea and circulation collapse because of instilled the topical lidocaine into the airway within 2min before performing flexible bronchoscopy (FB). FB revealed swollen airway mucosa and extensive foamy secretion that severely compromised the ventilation lumen. Rapid detection with FB and immediate resuscitation, including prompt administration of epinephrine, volume expander, and more

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