What's new in asthma? New updated asthma diagnosis and managment cost of treatment of symptoms of asthma attacks in children and adults.
The goal of asthma treatment is to avoid triggers and control airway inflammation.
- June 2010: Dulera (mometasone furoate/formoterol fumarate dehydrate; Merck) was FDA approved as treatment for asthma partially based on the results of two randomized clinical trials involving 1509 patients â‰¥12 years of age with persistent asthma uncontrolled on medium- or high-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS).
- August 2011: Verona Pharmaceuticals reported positive results from a phase II trial of RPL-554 for the treatment of mild asthma. RPL-554 is a novel, long-acting inhibitor of phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3 and PDE 4 enzymes, which combines bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory actions in a single drug.
- May 2012: Pulmatrix announced study results showing that iCALM (inhaled cationic airway lining modulator therapy) attenuated allergen-induced asthmatic bronchitis.
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Body mass index and risk of second primary breast cancer
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 09/08/2011
Brooks JD et al. – No association between body mass index (BMI) and contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk was seen in premenopausal or postmenopausal women with ER–positive first primaries. Overall, BMI is not associated with CBC risk in this population of young breast cancer survivors.
- The authors included 511 women with CBC (cases) and 999 women with unilateral breast cancer (controls) who had never used postmenopausal hormone therapy.
- Rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to assess the relationship between BMI and CBC risk.
- No associations between BMI at first diagnosis or weight-change between first diagnosis and date of CBC diagnosis (or corresponding date in matched controls) and CBC risk were seen.
- obese (BMI≥30kg/m2) postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative first primary tumors (n=12 cases and 9 controls) were at an increased risk of ...read more
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Pegylated interferon plus ribavirin therapy improves pancreatic -cell function in chronic hepatitis C patients
Liver International, 08/15/2011 Clinical Article
Huang JF et al. – This study demonstrated pancreatic β–cell function was ameliorated by peginterferon plus ribavirin(PegIFN/RBV) therapy in chronic hepatitis C(CHC) patients, particularly in those responders.
- Total of 277 non–diabetic patients treated with PegIFN–α and weight–based RBV, with 80/80/80 adherence, were recruited.
- Their insulin resistance(IR) and β–cell function by homeostasis model assessment model (HOMA–IR and HOMA–%B) before treatment and at 24 week after treatment [end of follow–up (EOF)] was measured.
- Sustained virological response (SVR) was achieved by 79.4% (220/277) of all patients: 63.6% (75/118) of genotype–1 and 91.2% (145/159) of genotype–non–1 patients.
- There was no significant change of ...read more
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Constipation and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease among Postmenopausal Women
American Journal of Medicine, 07/27/2011
Salmoirago-Blotcher E et al. - In postmenopausal women, constipation is a marker for cardiovascular risk factors and increased cardiovascular risk. Because constipation is easily assessed, it may be a helpful tool to identify women with increased cardiovascular risk.
- The authors conducted a secondary analysis in 93,676 women enrolled in the observational arm of the Women's Health Initiative.
- Constipation was evaluated at baseline by a self-administered questionnaire.
- Estimates of the risk of cardiovascular events (cumulative end point including mortality from coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, angina, coronary revascularization, stroke, and transient ischemic attack) were derived from Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for demographics, risk factors, and other clinical variables (median follow-up 6.9 years).
- The analysis included 73,047 women.
- Constipation was associated with increased age, African American and Hispanic descent, smoking, diabetes, high cholesterol, family history of myocardial infarction, hypertension, obesity, lower physical activity levels, lower fiber intake, and depression.
- Women with moderate and severe constipation experienced more ...read more
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Oral anti-diabetic drugs for the prevention of Type 2 diabetes
Diabetic Medicine, 07/18/2011 Clinical Article
Phung OJ et al. – Of the oral anti–diabetic drugs evaluated to prevent Type 2 diabetes, thiazolidinediones were associated with the greatest risk reduction compared with control and associated with greater risk reduction than biguanides. Alpha–glucosidase inhibitors and biguanides performed similarly, and better than control, while sulphonylureas and glinides provided no significant benefit.
- A systematic literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane CENTRAL was conducted for randomized controlled trials evaluating oral anti–diabetic drugs in patients at high risk for developing Type 2 diabetes.
- Mixed–treatment comparison meta–analysis methods were used to evaluate the relative risks and risk differences of developing Type 2 diabetes, along with associated 95% credible intervals.
- 20 trials (n=23230 participants) were included.
- Upon mixed–treatment comparison meta–analysis, thiazolidinediones, alpha–glucosidase inhibitors and biguanides significantly reduced the relative risk of developing diabetes by 64, 40 and 27%, respectively, compared with control.
- Sulphonylureas and glinides showed no significant effect.
- thiazolidinediones significantly reduced the relative risk of ...read more
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Primary care physician compliance with colorectal cancer screening guidelines
Cancer Causes and Control, 06/30/2011
Nodora JN et al.– Guideline compliance was higher for fecal occult blood test (FOBT) than colonoscopy; overuse of screening for these modalities was reported among physicians. Primary care physicians (PCPs) are not adequately following colorectal cancer (CRC) screening guidelines.
- Survey data from 984 PCPs in Arizona were used.
- Self–reported CRC screening practices, recommendations, and compliance with guidelines were assessed.
- Physician and practice characteristics associated with guideline compliance were also evaluated.
While 77.5% of physicians reported using national screening guidelines, only 51.7% reported recommendations consistent with ...read more
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: A randomised controlled dietary intervention trial in healthy men
Clinical Nutrition, 06/02/2011
Jakobsen LH et al. – The high protein(HP) group improved their reaction time significantly compared with the usual group. Branched chain amino acids and phenylalanine in plasma were significantly increased following the HP diet, which may explain the improved reaction time. Healthy young males fed a HP diet improved reaction time. No adverse effects of the HP diet were observed.
- Randomised intervention study was conducted with 23 healthy males (aged 19–31 yrs).
- All subjects consumed a Usual Protein (UP) diet (1.5 g protein/kg BW) for a 1-wk run-in period before the intervention period where they were assigned to either a UP or a High Protein (HP) diet (3.0 g protein/kg BW) for 3-wks with controlled intake of food and beverages.
- Blood and urine samples were taken along with measurements of physiological functions at baseline and at the end of the intervention period.
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Beauchet O et al. - Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations were associated with high stride-to-stride variability of stride time (STV) reflecting a disturbed gait control. This association could be explained by a possible action of vitamin D on different components involved in gait control.
- 411 community-dwelling older adults (mean age 70.4 ± 1.8 years, 57.9% women)
- STV and 25OHD concentration assessed
- The following established 25OHD thresholds were used:
- severe 25OHD insufficiency <10 ng/mL
- moderate 10–30 ng/mL
- normal >30 ng/mL
- Age, number of drugs used per day, use of psychoactive drugs, depressive symptoms, cognitive decline, history of falls, distance visual acuity, lower limb proprioception, center of mass (CoM) motion, and walking speed were considered as potential confounders.
High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention, 05/03/2011
Leuzzi C et al. - This article summarizes the different causes of postmenopausal hypertension and the specific treatment recommended by guidelines for this condition.
- Hypertension is the most common chronic disease in industrialized countries and represents the most common major cardiovascular risk factor after the fifth decade of life in both men and women.
- The prevalence of hypertension is lower in premenopausal women than men, whereas in postmenopausal women it is higher than in men....read more
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