conducted by researchers at the University of Washington, Seattle and funded by the NIH and Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation showed that women who use hormonal contraception (especially injectable hormones) have an increase risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV. The study involved 3790 heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in 7 African countries. Of 1314 couples in which the female partner was HIV-negative, HIV-1 was acquired at a rate of 6.61 and 3.78 per 100 person-years in hormonal contraception users and non-users, respectively (HR = 1.98). Of 2476 couples in which the male parter was HIV-negative, HIV-1 was transmitted at a rate of 2.61 and 1.51 per 100 person-years in hormonal contraception users and non-users, respectively (HR = 1.97).
have a 2-fold increased risk of ischemic stroke. Hyperglycemia occurs in up to 40% of patients with T2DM at the time of admission with an ischemic stroke, and is associated with a poor functional outcome. It remains uncertain if normalizing blood glucose levels improves outcome.
As published in the Archives of Internal Medicine, postmenopausal women who use statins are at increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus (HR=1.71). The observational study involved 153,840 women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative, 7.04% of whom used statins at baseline.
As published in Atherosclerosis, researchers at Gachon University Gil Hospital (Incheon, ROK) have reported that fenofibrate has superior lipoprotein and metabolic effects compared to omega-3 fatty acids (O3FA) in patients with hypertriglyceridemia. The study involved 50 patients each in 3 arms: placebo; O3FA (2 g qd x 2 mos); and fenofibrate (160 mg qd x 2 mos). The patients who received O3FA had a 21% decrease in triglycerides and improved flow-mediated dilation, but no change in insulin or adiponectin levels. The patients who received fenofibrate had a 29% decrease in tryglycerides, improved flow-mediated dilation, decreased fasting insulin levels, increased adiponectin levels, and improved insulin sensitivty.
In a prospective cohort study
involving 840 participants in the Framingham Heart Study (median age, 76 years) who were followed for 13 years, researchers at Tufts and Boston Universities reported that 159 participants developed dementia. Amongst biomarkers for insulin resistance and inflammation, only elevated adiponectin levels in women was associated with all-cause dementia (HR=1.63).
In a study
involving 2148 patients on bisphosphonate therapy and 6444 matched patients with osteoporotic fractures who were followed for 2 years, the risk of stroke was significantly reduced in the former group (8.6% vs. 10.8% [HR=.79]). Bisphosphonate users had a 0.53- and 0.81-fold risk of subarachnoid and ischemic strokes, respectively, compared to non-users.