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• MRI results differentiate predictive clinical outcomes for children with cervical spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality.
• The diagnosis of CNS tuberculosis should rest on a combination of clinical, CSF analysis, and radiological results.
• CT-guided pulsed radiofrequency treatment is not effective for idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia compared with conventional radiofrequency thermocoagulation.
• MRI of the neuromelanin can distinguish multiple system atrophy from Parkinson’s.

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CSF chitinase is a biomarker for Alzheimer's disease

As published in Neurology, CSF chitinase activity is superior to beta-amyloid and tau levels in discriminating patients with from patients without dementia.  Specifically, the accuracies of chitinase, beta-amyloid, and tau were 85.8%, 78.4%, and 77.6%, respectively.  Chitinase was also superior to other biomarkers of DNA damage and telomere dysfunction, including N-acetyl-glucosaminidase, stathmin, and EF-1alpha. 

Hyperglycemia in patients with T2DM and ischemic stroke

Diabetics have a 2-fold increased risk of ischemic stroke.  Hyperglycemia occurs in up to 40% of patients with T2DM at the time of admission with an ischemic stroke, and is associated with a poor functional outcome.  It remains uncertain if normalizing blood glucose levels improves outcome.

Elevated adiponectin is a risk factor for dementia

In a prospective cohort study involving 840 participants in the Framingham Heart Study (median age, 76 years) who were followed for 13 years, researchers at Tufts and Boston Universities reported that 159 participants developed dementia.  Amongst biomarkers for insulin resistance and inflammation, only elevated adiponectin levels in women was associated with all-cause dementia (HR=1.63).

Bisphosphates decrease risk of stroke

In a study involving 2148 patients on bisphosphonate therapy and 6444 matched patients with osteoporotic fractures who were followed for 2 years, the risk of stroke was significantly reduced in the former group (8.6% vs. 10.8% [HR=.79]).  Bisphosphonate users had a 0.53- and 0.81-fold risk of subarachnoid and ischemic strokes, respectively, compared to non-users.
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